Apart from the IETF hackathons, the cyberstorm.mu team also focused on internal hackathon either remotely or on-site participation. Another remote hackathon was already in progress since Saturday the 16th of June 2018. It was named Operation JASK – Just a Single Keystroke. Announced publicly on Sunday the 17th of June 2018 after noticing that several Crypto currency mining tools were vulnerable to CVE-2018-12356. By the time, many members of the team were already mobilised even if it was a public holiday in Mauritius. The operation was named JASK – Just a Single Keystroke as the security issues is concerned with the hardening of a regular expression, in particular requiring [GNUPG:] to be at the beginning of a line (^\[GNUPG:\]). We had to fire a single keystroke at the right place to fix a single vulnerability.
Marcus Brinkmann, who is a free software activist explained “An issue was discovered in password-store.sh in the pass in Simple Password Store 1.7 through 1.7.1. The signature verification routine parses the output of GnuPG with an incomplete regular expression, which allows remote attackers to spoof file signatures on configuration files and extensions scripts. Modifying the configuration file allows the attacker to inject additional encryption keys under their control, thereby disclosing passwords to the attacker. Modifying the extension scripts allows the attacker arbitrary code execution.”
However, simply the patch is, the attack aimed GnuPG signature verification process which is specific to pass the Simple Password Store. It can give the attacker access to passwords and remote code execution. On theRegister.co.uk – Pass gets a fail: Simple Password Store suffers GnuPG spoofing bug, Loganaden Velvindron core member of the cyberstorm.mu explained, “It’s hard to identify just how many downstream projects inherit a vulnerability as the one Brinkmann spotted, but the number of problem projects will likely be non-trivial because the GnuPG cryptography suite has applications beyond e-mail protection.”
Lime is a Loadable Kernel Module (LKM) which allows for volatile memory acquisition from Linux and Linux-based devices, such as Android. This makes LiME unique as it is the first tool that allows for full memory captures on Android devices. It also minimises its interaction between user and kernel space processes during acquisition, which allows it to produce memory captures that are more forensically sound than those of other tools designed for Linux memory acquisition. – Lime. Volatility framework was released at Black Hat DC for analysis of memory during forensic investigations.
Analysing memory in Linux can be carried out using Lime which is a forensic tool to dump the memory. I am actually using CentOS 6 distribution installed on a Virtual Box to acquire memory. Normally before capturing the memory, the suspicious system’s architecture should be well known. May be you would need to compile Lime on the the suspicious machine itself if you do not know the architecture. Once you compile Lime, you would have a kernel loadable object which can be injected in the Linux Kernel itself.
Linux memory dump with Lime
1. You will first need to download Lime on the suspicious machine.
git clone https://github.com/504ensicsLabs/LiME
2. Do the compilation of Lime. Once it has been compiled, you will noticed the creation of the Lime loadable kernel object.
3. Now the kernel object have to be loaded into the kernel. Insert the kernel module. Then, define the location and format to save the memory image.
6. Now, we will create a Linux profile. We will also need to download the DwarfDump package. Once it is downloaded go to Tools -> Linux directory, then create the module.dwarf file.
yum install epel-release libdwarf-tools -y && make
7. To proceed further, the System.map file is important to build the profile. The System.map file contains the locations of all the functions active in the compiled kernel. You will notice it inside the /boot directory. It is also important to corroborate the version appended with the System.map file together the version and architecture of the kernel. In the example below, the version is 2.6.32-696.23.1.el6.x86_64.
8. Now, go to the root of the Volatility directory using cd ../../ since I assumed that you are in the linux directory. Then, create a zip file as follows:
zip volatility/plugins/overlays/linux/Centos6-2632.zip tools/linux/module.dwarf /boot/System.map-2.6.32-696.23.1.el6.x86_64
9. The volatility module has now been successfully created as indicated in part 8 for the particular version of the Linux and kernel version. Time to have fun with some Python script. You can view the profile created with the following command:
python vol.py --info | grep Linux
As you can see the profile LinuxCentos6-2632 profile has been created.
10. Volatile contains plugins to view details about the memory dump performed. To view the plugins or parsers, use the following command:
python vol.py --info | grep -i linux_
11. Now imagine that you want to see the processes running at the time of the memory dump. You will have to execute the vol.py script, specify the location of the memory dump, define the profile created and call the parser concerned.
I find the LiMEaid tools really interesting to remote executing of Lime. “LiMEaide is a python application designed to remotely dump RAM of a Linux client and create a volatility profile for later analysis on your local host. I hope that this will simplify Linux digital forensics in a remote environment. In order to use LiMEaide all you need to do is feed a remote Linux client IP address, sit back, and consume your favorite caffeinated beverage.” – LiMEaid
Linux architecture is very important when dealing with Lime. This is probably the first question that one would ask.
The kernel-headers package is a must to create the kernel loadable object.
Once a memory dump have been created, its important to take a hash value. It can be done using the command md5sum Linux64.mem
I would also consider to download the devel tools using yum groupinstall “Development Tools” -y
As good practice as indicated in part 8 when creating the zip file, use the proper convention when naming the file. In my case I used the OS version and the kernel version for future references.
Not all Parsers/Plugins will work with Volatile as same might not be compatible with the Linux system.
You can check out the Volatile wiki for more info about the Parsers.
Auditing a Linux System is one of the most important aspect when it comes to security. After deploying a simple Centos 7 Linux machine on virtual box, I made an audit using Lynis. It is amazing how many tiny flaws can be seen right from the beginning of a fresh installation. Lynis Enterprise performs security scanning for Linux, macOS, and Unix systems. It helps you discover and solve issues quickly, so you can focus on your business and projects again. – Cisofy.
The Lynis tool performs both security and compliance auditing. It has a free and paid version which comes very handy especially if you are on a business environment. The installation of the Lynis tool is pretty simple. You can install it through the Linux repository itself, download the tar file or clone it directly from Github.
Scanning Performed by Lynis
1. I downloaded the tar file with the following command:
2. Then, just untar the file and get into it
tar -xzf lynis-2.6.0.tar.gz && cd lynis
3. Once into the untar directory, launch the following command:
./lynis audit system --quick
As you can see from the output above, there are several suggestions at the end of the scan. In case the paid version of the application was used, more information and commands as how to remediate the situation would be given including support from Lynis. As regards to the free version, you can also debug by yourself several security aspects from the suggestions.
Suggestions, Compliance and Improvement.
1.The first two suggestions were about minimum and maximum password age.
Configure minimum password age in /etc/login.defs [AUTH-9286]
Configure maximum password age in /etc/login.defs [AUTH-9286]
To check the minimum and maximum password age, use the chage command :
2. Use chage -m root to set the minimum password age and chage -M root to set maximum password age:
Also, you will have to set the parameter in the /etc/login.defs file
3. Delete accounts which are no longer used [AUTH-9288]
It is also suggested to delete accounts which are no longer in use. This suggestion was prompted as I created a user “nitin” account during installation and did not use it yet. For the purpose of this blog, I deleted it using userdel -r nitin
4. Default umask in /etc/profile or /etc/profile.d/custom.sh could be more strict (e.g. 027) [AUTH-9328]
Default umask values are taken from the information provided in the /etc/login.defs file for RHEL (Red Hat) based distros. Debian and Ubuntu Linux based system use /etc/deluser.conf. To change default umask value to 027 which is actually 022 by default, you will need to modify the /etc/profile script as follows:
5. To decrease the impact of a full /home file system, place /home on a separated partition [FILE-6310]
To decrease the impact of a full /tmp file system, place /tmp on a separated partition [FILE-6310]
To decrease the impact of a full /var file system, place /var on a separated partition [FILE-6310]
6. Disable drivers like USB storage when not used, to prevent unauthorized storage or data theft [STRG-1840]
Disable drivers like firewire storage when not used, to prevent unauthorized storage or data theft [STRG-1846]
To disable USB and firewire storage drivers, add the following lines in /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf then do a modprobe usb-storage && modprobe firewire-core
7. Split resolving between localhost and the hostname of the system [NAME-4406]
This issue is only about hostname and localhost in /etc/hosts which could confuse some applications installed on the machine. According to cisofy, for proper resolving, the entries of localhost and the local defined hostname, could be split. Using some middleware and some applications, resolving of the hostname to localhost, might confuse the software.
8. Install package ‘yum-utils’ for better consistency checking of the package database [PKGS-7384]
The yum-utils and arpwatch are nice tools to perform more debugging and verification. Install it using the following commands:
yum install yum-utils arpwatch -y
9. You are advised to hide the mail_name (option: smtpd_banner) from your postfix configuration. Use postconf -e or change your main.cf file (/etc/postfix/main.cf) [MAIL-8818]
You just have to uncomment the following line and lauch a postconf -e. However, since this is a fresh install, and I’m not using postfix, it is better to stop the service.
10. Check iptables rules to see which rules are currently not used [FIRE-4513]
Since, I’m not on a production environment, it is very difficult to identify unused iptables rules right now. Once on the production environment, this situation is different. According to Cisofy, the best way is to “use iptables –list –numeric –verbose to display all rules. Check for rules which didn’t get a hit and repeat this process several times (e.g. in a few weeks). Finally remove any unneeded rules.”
Again, hardening SSH is one of the most important to evade attacks especially from SSH bots. It all depends how your network infrastructure is configured and whether it is accessible from the internet or not. However, these details viewed are very informative.
Lynis documentation is pretty straight forward with a cheat sheet. The arguments are self explicit. Here are some hints.
1.Performs a system audit which is the most common audit.
lynis audit system
2. Provides command to do a remote scan.
lynis audit system remote <host>
3. Views the settings of default profile.
lynis show settings
4. Checks if you are using most recent version of Lynis
lynis update info
5. More information about a specific test-id
lynis show details <test-id>
6. To scan whole system
lynix --check-all Q
7. To see all available parameters of Lynis
lynis show options
At the end of any Lynis command, it will also prompt you where the logs have been stored for your future references. It is usually in /var/log/lynis.log. The systutorial on lynis is also a good start to grasp the command. All common systems based on Unix/Linux are supported. Examples include Linux, AIX, *BSD, HP-UX, macOS and Solaris. For package management, the following tools are supported:- dpkg/apt, pacman, pkg_info, RPM, YUM, zypper.
Stunnel is a program by Michal Trojnara that allows you to encrypt arbitrary TCP connections inside SSL. Stunnel can also allow you to secure non-SSL aware daemons and protocols (like POP, IMAP, LDAP, etc) by having Stunnel provide the encryption, requiring no changes to the daemon’s code. It is a proxy designed to add TLS encryption functionality to existing clients and servers without any changes in the programs’ code. Its architecture is optimized for security, portability, and scalability (including load-balancing), making it suitable for large deployments. – Stunnel.org
The concept that lies behind Stunnel is about the encryption methodology that is used when the client is sending a message to a server using a secure tunnel. In this article, we will focus on using MySQL alongside Stunnel. MariaDB Client will access the MariaDB server database using the Stunnel for more security and robustness.
I will demonstrate the installation and configuration using the CentOS distribution which is on my Virtual Box lab environment. I created two CentOS 7 virtual machines with hostname as stunnelserver and stunnelclient. We will tunnel the MySQL traffic via Stunnel. You can apply the same concept for SSH, Telnet, POP, IMAP or any TCP connection.
The two machines created are as follows:
stunnelserver : 192.168.100.17 – Used as the Server
stunnelclient : 192.168.100.18 – Used as the Client
Basic package installation and configuration on both servers
1. Install the Stunnel and OpenSSL package on both the client and the server.
yum install stunnel openssl -y
2. As we will be using Stunnel over MariaDB, you can use the MariaDB repository tools to get the links to download the repository. Make sure you have the MariaDB-client package installed on the stunnelclient which will be used as client to connect to the server. Also, install both packages on the stunnelserver. The commands to install the MariaDB packages are as follows:
sudo yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client
3. For more information about installations of MariaDB, Galera etc, refer to these links:
Configuration to be carried out on the stunnelserver (192.168.100.17)
4. Once you have all the packages installed, it’s time to create your privatekey.pem. Then, use the private key to create the certificate.pem. Whilst creating the certificate.pem, it will prompt you to enter some details. Feel free to fill it.
5. Now comes the most interesting part to configure the stunnel.conf file by tunnelling it to the MySQL port on the stunnelserver. I observed that the package by default does not come with a stunnel.conf or even a Init script after installing it from the repository. So, you can create your own Init script. Here is my /etc/stunnel/stunnel.conf on the server:
14. You can now start the service on the client as follows:
15. A netstat on the client will show the Stunnel listening on port 24.
16. You can now connect on the MySQL database from your client to your server through the tunnel. Example:
mysql -h 127.0.0.1 -u <Name of Database> -p -P 24
When starting Stunnel, the log and the pid file will be created automatically inside the jail environment that is /var/run/stunnel.
You can also change the debug log level. Level is a one of the syslog level names or numbers emerged (0), alert (1), crit (2), err (3), warning (4), notice (5), info (6), or debug (7). All logs for the specified level and all levels numerically less than it will be shown. Use debug = debug or debug = 7 for greatest debugging output. The default is notice (5).
If you compile from source, you will have a free log rotate and Init scripts. Probably on CentOS, it’s not packaged with the script!
You can also verify if SSLv2 and SSLv3 have been disabled using openssl s_client -connect 127.0.0.1:44323 -ssl3 and try with -tls1 to compare.
For the purpose of testing, you might need to check your firewall rules and SELINUX parameters.
You don’t need MariaDB-Server package on the client.
Stunnel is running on a Jail environment. The logs and the PID described in part 5 and 11 will be found in /var/run/stunnel.
You can invoke stunnel from inetd. Inetd is the Unix ‘super server’ that allows you to launch a program (for example the telnet daemon) whenever a connection is established to a specified port. See the “Stunnel how’s to” for more information. The Stunnel manual can also be viewed here.
Some days back, the cyberstorm.mu (Name rebranded due to trademark issue) team made our first video stream on Youtube about Modem Insecurity in Mauritius. We received several feedbacks from the public, friends and local media about the issue raised. Upon further research, I noticed that there are several countries including Vietnam, China amongst others are in the same problematic situation as they are using the same Huawei modem. More and more vulnerabilities are now being faced by the end users. Users aware of the issue can mitigate it from their side whilst others are still in the dark.