One of the PHP vulnerability that is still being found on many websites is the fopen function in PHP – CVE-2007-0448. You can secure your website by disabling includes when calling the fopen function.
According to cvedetails.com“PHP 5.2.0 does not properly handle invalid URI handlers, which allows context-dependent attackers to bypass safe_mode restrictions and read arbitrary files via a file path specified with an invalid URI, as demonstrated via the srpath URI”
It’s usually not recommended to enable the fopen function in the php.ini, however, some developers include it in the code itself for a specific task. Let’s see how this is exploited:
Let’s say we have a page called vulnerability.php containing these code
$vulnerable = $_GET['vulnerable'];
So, $vulnerable = $_GET[‘vulnerable’]; means to put the ‘vulnerable’ GET property in the variable $vulnerable; i.e GET property that is in the URL. An example is http://mysite.com/page.php?vulnerable=yes&howmuch=Very.
By including the value of the variable ($vulnerable), you allowing an attacker to inject code. Someone, for instance, can try this on his browser
This will enable the attacker to get into subdirectories and start exploring the whole directory. However, if you are running PHP-FPM for a particular instance, only that particular instance is impacted as PHP-FPM allows you to isolate each running instances within the server.
Have you ever notice that your ISP (Internet Service Provider) advertise you Internet package in a very tricky way? One of the best ways to manipulate you is with the use of the technical term such as Bytes and bits. To be briefer its the term Kilobits per seconds (kbps).
However, if you would be browsing the Internet or downloading some files, you would notice that your browser is indicating the speed at Kilobytes per second (kB/s)
To be more clear, your ISP sells Internet service in terms of kilobits per seconds (kbps) whilst your browser indicates you kilobytes per seconds (kBp/s). The trap is the word b – bits and B – Bytes.
let us say you have applied for a 512 kbps.
Firstly, divide your speed by 8 and multiply by 1024 to convert from kilobits per second to bytes per second; i.e 512 x 1024/8 = 65,536 bytes per second
Then convert from bytes/s to kilobytes/s
65,535 bytes = 65,535/1000 kB/s = 65.5 kB/s
So, in brief, Internet speed is what is advertised to you and what you pay for! On the other hand, what your browser download speed is What you should get!
512 kbps = 65.5 kB/s
1 Mbps = 122.1 kB/s
2 Mbps = 244.2 kB/s
10 Mbps = 1220.1 kB/s
Now, make as if you are going to download a 700 Megabytes file. What will happen is that your browser will make an estimation of the Downtime. However, you can monitor your downloads with several tools available on the Internet. Let’s say you have a 1Mbps Internet connection from your ISP which means that your speed will be 65.5KB/s.
Calculate the Download time as follows
700 x 1024 = 716800 kilobytes (convert from 700 megabytes to kilobytes)
716800 kilobytes will download in 716800/65.5 = 5870.6 seconds
5870.597870598 / 60 = 97 minutes
Assume we have still had to subscribe to a 1 Mb. The trick is that when you buy an internet connection. Your ISP does not inform you or commit themselves to what is required! and evade the fact by using the famous word “up to”!! What I am referring is that you pay the internet connection up to “xxx kbps”
This is called CIR – committed information rate. According to Wikipedia, CIR is “Committed information rate or CIR in a Frame Relay network is the average bandwidth for a virtual circuit guaranteed by an ISP to work under normal conditions.”
Therefore the CIR is the minimum speed provided by your ISP. Does ISPs provide that CIR? Is this mentioned in the Law? My understanding is that one cannot complain until that CIR is mentioned in the contract!!.
Another issue is something called PEO (Protocol Encapsulation Overhead). When you’re buying, say an ADSL link of 2 Mbps, your line is syncing with your ISP at 2 Mbps over ATM or any other backbone technology. (PPOA. PPOE). Now, the catch is that the Point to Point Protocol over ATM (PPOA), needs to be encapsulated over the ATM media. There is an overhead to do so, meaning you are not effectively getting 2 Mbps Internet Protocol connectivity.
Its been almost more than one year that I have created a group on Facebook for students and prospective BCS HEQ students to join hands together for more advanced and constructive debates helping everyone to go through the BCS HEQ exams. Already reaching more than 450 members, the group is usually more active during exams period though there are many members encouraging and helping each one and other.
What is BCS? The British Computer Society (BCS) champions the global IT profession and the interests of individuals engaged in that profession for the benefit of all. Several interesting activities have been carried out by the BCS in terms of setting up standards and frameworks.
As a student member of the BCS, I have access to the online library powered by Safari Books Online. Several facilities such as an email forwarder service as well the BCS online Magazine called ITNOW which are really interesting for students and IT professionals.
On the Facebook group, we focused on the aim to share notes between students. However, other professionals and students are also welcome to share their knowledge about IT. To give a straight and forward message to fake or illegal learning centers, the group will not accept people advertising their learning centers. The official website of BCS has already a list of registered centers.
If you are from Mauritius the link to the official BCS MAURITIUS SECTION WEBSITE is bcsmru.bcs.org
If you are an IT enthusiast do not delay to join on the Facebook group.
He started by giving a straightforward explanation to the audience the difference between a web server and a runtime environment in the context of NodeJs.
As you can see on the YouTube video he laid emphasis on the following topics:
1. A problem statement
2. Web server architectures
3. Building an event-driven web server with NodeJS
4. Distributed load with NodeJs
5. Useful tools and Real life Benchmarks
We ended with some technical questions. Several questions were shot up by our hangout viewers. You can view the video and ask any questions for more clarifications. About 15-20 persons attended the meetup.
This is a straight and direct message to everyone on this planet. YOU NEED TO UPDATE YOUR ANDROID MOBILE PHONES, TABLETS etc.. NOW!!
How many amongst you have an Android device? Are you aware that actually, billions of people around the world are impacted by a vulnerability called Stagefright? After the announcement was made on 27 July 2015 by Joshua Drake of Zimperium, I still noticed that there are many people who are not at all aware of this vulnerability and its devastating effect.
“Stagefright has been called the biggest Android security concern ever. It occurs when malicious code is unknowingly triggered by media in multi-media messages (MMS). Stagefright could affect a billion devices, most particularly those running Android Jelly Bean or earlier. This number, if you’ve taken a recent look at the percentages of different Android versions currently in use, is staggering.” – Androidpit.com
You can download the FREE app at the Google Play Store to verify if your mobile phone is vulnerable or not.
The aim of this article is to sensitize everyone to update their Android devices. Please do inform your friends and everyone around you.